In this lesson we have covered the following:

  1. The uses and usefulness of terminators.

  2. Time cmavo: pu, ca, and ba.

  3. Time intervals: zi, za and zu.

  4. Duration: ze'i, ze'a and ze'u.

  5. Location: vi, va, vu and bu'u.

  6. Direction: fa'a, to'o, zu'a (and so on).

  7. Negation: na'e, no'e and to'e.

There are many more cmavo to describe time and space (and a couple more for negation, for that matter), but they are only there if you need them. In fact, unless you want to be specific about time or space, you don't even need the ones in this lesson. Remember the golden rule of Lojban grammar: If you don't need it, don't use it! Lojban grammar is your servant, not your master.



x1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo x2 to x3 from x4 over path x5; x1 is a carrier/[porter]


x1 is full/completely filled with x2


x1 [container] is empty/vacant of x2 [material]; x1 is hollow


x1 takes/gets/gains/obtains/seizes/[removes] x2 (object/property) from x3 (possessor)


x1 is/acts as a friend of/to x2 (experiencer); x2 befriends x1


x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of wine from fruit/grapes x2


x1 observes/[notices]/watches/beholds x2 using senses/means x3 under conditions x4

Exercise 6

Translation exercises are not your master, either, but they are your business! Translate from Lojban; assume the story is happening in the here-and-now:

  1. .i baza lenu la jan. cliva kei la suzyn. sanli ne'i vi le barja

  2. .i caziku la suzyn. denpa lenu baziku la jan. viska la suzyn.

  3. .i la suzyn. viska re lo kabri

  4. .i go'i pa lo pu culno .i go'i pa lo ca culno

  5. .i le puzi culno ca kunti ba lenu la jan. pinxe loi birje kei .i'enai vau .ua

  6. .i lenu pinxe loi dotco birje kei ku na se nelci ro lo prenu

  7. .i la suzyn. ze'i tavla le bevri

  8. ".i ko lebna ta .i ko dunda lo cnino vanju botpi mi"

  9. ".i .ei na dotco"

Exercise 7

Translate into Lojban these (hopefully much less brain-squelching than the previous lesson's) sentences:

  1. A long time ago, Susan briefly lived at Zhang's.

  2. Now Susan lives some way away from Zhang.

  3. When Susan goes to the house, she goes a little to the left of the bar.

  4. Every Thursday Susan goes to the bar, not far from the office.

  5. At the bar Susan meets Susan's long-time friends.

  6. Susan notices that the beer is German by seeing the bottle label. (Hint: look carefully at the place structure of zgana.)

  7. Susan sits away from the German beer.